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Pris på koldioxid når 9 % av världens befolkning

2018-06-20T11:10:30+00:003 januari, 2013|Klimatfrågan|

The state of California in the United States, the Canadian province of Quebec and the western Asian nation of Kazakhstan all launched markets that cap emissions from energy and manufacturing industries. The three new jurisdictions have a joint population of over 60 million people. Added to the 560 million people already exposed to carbon pricing through markets in Europe, the northeastern United States and New Zealand, about 9 percent of the world’s population face some form of carbon price. Below is a summary of the three schemes:

 

CALIFORNIA

Covers: emissions from power plants, manufacturing representing around 35 percent of California’s greenhouse gas output.

Scope: Mandatory for 350 businesses representing 600 facilities.

Target: Cut the state’s emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, equivalent to a 15 percent reduction compared to business-as-usual forecasts.

Length: The system starts with a two-year phase before it continues with three-year compliance periods.

How it works: Polluters receive 90 percent of permits of their estimated demand. They can buy additional permits from the state at quarterly auctions, which began in November.

Offsets: Emitters can use a limited number of offsets from emission reduction projects approved by the California Air Resources Board (ARB), the program’s administrator. So far the ARB has approved four types of projects related to forestry, urban forestry, agricultural methane and ozone depleting substances.

 

QUEBEC

Covers: Emissions from the industrial and electricity sectors accounting for about 27 percent of Quebec’s emissions.

Scope: Mandatory for 75 facilities in covered sectors.

Target: Cut emissions 15 percent below 2005 levels by 2020.

Length: The system starts with a two-year phase before it continues with three-year compliance periods.

How it works: Polluters receive permits for free and buy them in government auctions, which start in February.

Offsets: The state allows emitters to use a limited number of offsets deriving from domestic projects cutting emissions through livestock methane destruction, utilisation of methane at small landfills and the destruction of some ozone depleting substances.

 

KAZAKHSTAN

Covers: Emissions from energy (power and heat), mining and industries (metallurgy, cement and lime production, chemical industry and food processing) accounting for 56 percent of the nation’s total greenhouse gas output.

Scope: Mandatory for 178 installations (all installations that have emissions above 20,000 tonnes of CO2 per year).

Target: Initially to cut emissions to 2010 levels by 2013.

Length: The system starts with a one-year pilot phase before it continues with longer compliance periods.

How it works: Polluters receive permits for free up to their emissions in 2010. Should they need more, they can buy extra permits on a domestic commodity exchange. There are no penalties for non-compliance in the pilot phase.

Offsets: Only offsets generated domestically are allowed.

 

Compiled by Marton Kruppa – marton.kruppa@thomsonreuters.com